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Clinical Bibliography

Bibliography: Papers Related to Clinical Work With Families and Former Group Members

Kristine Langone
This bibliography lists resources relevant to theclinical treatment of people adversely affected by involvement in high-demandor cultic groups, including former group members, concerned family members, andthose born or raised in groups. Selected general resources on research, trauma,and other topics, as well as historically significant documents, have also beenincluded, if deemed relevant to clinicians working in this field. Many of thesearticles can be found on this website’s article pageThis is NOT a general cultic studies bibliography.

This bibliography was originally published in ICSA’s Cult Recovery: A Clinician’s Guide to Working With Former Members and Families (2017), Edited by Lorna Goldberg, LCSW, PsyA, William Goldberg, LCSW, PsyA, Rosanne Henry, MA, LPC, and Michael Langone, PhD. 

This online version is made available so that the bibliography can be updated from time to time.

Tomake this bibliography as comprehensive as possible, please send suggestedadditions that are directly pertinent toclinical treatment to mail@icsamail.com. Make sure that you send complete bibliographic data for the item(s) you recommend. Thank you.

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ACE Study. (2011). The AdverseExperiences Study. Available from https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/acestudy/about.html

Adams-Weiss, D., Burks, R.,Sammons, G., & Svoboda, L. (2017). The Wellspring program: Yesterday,today, and tomorrow. In L. Goldberg, W. Goldberg, R. Henry, & M. D.Langone, (Eds.), Cult recovery: Aclinician’s guide to working with former members and their families (Chapter15, pp. 321-338). Bonita Springs, FL: ICSA.

Addis, M., Schulman-Miller, J.,& Lightman, M. (1984). The cult clinic helps families in crisis. SocialCasework: The Journal of Contemporary Social Work, 515–522.

Agustin, D. (2011). Family dynamicsduring a cult crisis. ICSA Today, 2(2),6–8.

Allen, A. (2016). Impact onchildren of being born into/raised in a cultic group. ICSA Today, 7(1), 17–22.

Almendros,C., Carrobles, J. A., & Rodriguez-Carballeira, A. (2007). Former members’ perceptions of cult involvement. Cultic Studies Review, 6(1), 1–20.

Almendros,C., Carrobles, J. A., Rodriguez-Carballeira, A., & Gamez-Guadix, M. (2009).Reasons for leaving: Psychological abuse and distressreported by former members of cultic groups. Cultic Studies Review, 8(2), 111–138.

Almendros,C., Gamez-Guadix, M., Rodriguez-Carballeira, A., & Carrobles, J. A. (2011).Assessment of psychological abuse in manipulativegroups. International Journal of CulticStudies, 2, 61

American Professional Society onthe Abuse of Children. (1996). Psychosocial evaluation of suspectedpsychological maltreatment in children and adolescents. Cultic Studies Journal, 13(2), 153

Aronoff McKibben, J., Lyn, S. J.,& Malinoski, P. (2000). Are cultic environments psychologically harmful? Clinical Psychology Review, 20, 91111. [Reprintedin Cultic Studies Review, 1(3),110–129 (see https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B4dmoPK1tYNjUWdJYmloNUhKRFE/edit; available online at http://www.icsahome.com/articles/are-cultic-environments-psychologically-harmful]

Ash, S. M. (1985). Cult-inducedpsychopathology, part 1: Clinical picture. Cultic Studies Journal, 2(1),31–90.

Asch, S. E. (1956). Studies ofindependence and conformity: A minority of one against a unanimous majority. Psychological Monographs, 70(9), 1–70 (Wholeno. 416).

Asser, S., & Swan, R. (2000).Child fatalities from religion-motivated medical neglect. Cultic Studies Journal, 17, 1–4.

Ayella, M. (1998). Insane therapy. Philadelphia: TempleUniversity Press.

Baker, A. J. L. (2005). The cult ofparenthood: A qualitative study of parental alienation. Cultic StudiesReview, 4(1), 1–29.

Bardin, D. (1994). Psychologicalcoercion and human rights: Mind control (“brainwashing”) exists. Washington, DC:Cult Abuse Policy and Research, 19 Apr. (Available from ICSA at http://www.icsahome.com/articles/psychological-coercion-and-human-rights-bardin)

Bardin, L. (2000). Coping withcult involvement: A handbook for families & friends (2nd ed.). BonitaSprings, FL: American Family Foundation.

Bardin, L. (2005). Child protectionin an authoritarian community: Culture clash and systematic weakness. CulticStudies Review 4(3), 233–267.

Bardin, L. (2009). Recognizing andworking with an underserved culture: Child protection and cults. Journal ofPublic Child Welfare, 3(2), 114–138.

Bardin, L. (2012). Starting out in mainstream America.Bonita Springs, FL: International Cultic Studies Association (Available from http://startingout.icsa.name/)

Barker, E. (1984). The making of a Moonie: Choice orbrainwashing? Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell.

Barker, E. (1990). New religious movements: A practicalintroduction. London, UK: HMSO.

Beall, L. (2011). The impact of amodern-day polygamy group on women and children. ICSA Today, 2(1), pp. 3–8.

Beckford, J. A., & Harvey, S. (2018). Minority religions and counseling: An overview.  In S. Harvey, S. Steidinger, & J. A. Beckford (Eds.), New religious movements and counseling. London: Routledge.

Bloch, A., & Shor, R. (1989).From consultation to therapy in group work with parents of cultists. Social Casework, 70(4), 231–236.

Boeri,M. W., & Boeri, K. (2008). Intergenerational memories of life in a cult: Alife course analysis, Journal of Ethnographic &Qualitative Research, 3(1), 79–90.

Boulette, T., & Andersen, S.(1986). “Mind control” and the battering of women. Cultic Studies Journal, 3(1), 25–35.

Boyle, R. (1999). How children incults may use emancipation laws to free themselves. Cultic Studies Review, 16(1), 1–32.

Brown, D., Scheflin, A., &Hammond, D. C. (1998). Memory, traumatreatment, and the law. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.

Burke, J. (2006). Antisocialpersonality disorder in cult leaders and induction of dependent personalitydisorder in cult members. Cultic Studies Review, 5(3), 390–410.

Burks, R., & Burks, V. (1992). Damaged disciples. Grand Rapids, MI:Zondervan.

Burks, R. (2014). 2012 Paul MartinLecture: Thought reform and the psychology of breaking away from totalism. ICSA Today, 5(3), 10–13.

Cartwright, R., & Kent, S.(1992) Social control in alternative religions: A familial perspective. Sociological Analysis, 53(4), 345–361.

Casoni, D., Pacheco, A., &Kropveld, M. (2015). State intervention against the Baptist Church of Windsor:From law-abiding citizens to perpetrators of severe child physical abuse, International Journal of Cultic Studies, 6,83–99.

Chambers,W. V., Langone, M. D., Dole, A. A., & Grice, J. W. (1994). The Group Psychological Abuse Scale: A measure of the varieties ofcultic abuse. Cultic Studies Journal, 11(1),88–117.

Cialdini, R. (1984). Influence: How and why people agree tothings. New York, NY: William Morrow.

Clark,D., Giambalvo, C., Giambalvo, N., Garvey, K., & Langone, M. D. (1993). Exit counseling: A practical overview. In M. Langone (Ed.), Recoveryfrom cults: Help for victims of psychological and spiritual abuse (pp.155–180). New York, NY: W.W. Norton.

Clark, J. G. (1979, July). Cults. Journalof the American Medical Association, 242, 279–281.

Clark, J. (1978). Problems inreferral of cult members. Journal of theNational Association of Private Psychiatric Hospitals, 9(4), 27–29.

Clark, J. G., Langone, M. D.,Schecter, R. E., & Daly, R. C. (1981). Destructive cult conversion:Theory, research, and treatment. Weston, MA: American Family Foundation.

Clifford, M. (1994). Social worktreatment with children, adolescents, and families exposed to religious andsatanic cults. Social Work in HealthCare, 20(2), 35–55.

Conway, F., & Siegelman, J.(1982, January). Information disease: Have cults created a new mental illness? Science Digest, pp. 86, 88, 90–92.

Conway, F., Siegelman, J. H., &Coggins, J. (1986). Information disease: Effects of covert induction anddeprogramming. Update, 10(2), 45–57.

Coates, D. D. (2011). Counsellingformer members of charismatic groups: Considering pre-involvement variables,reasons for joining the group and corresponding values. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 14(3), 191–207.

Coates, D. D. (2012). “Cultcommitment” from the perspective of former members: Direct rewards ofmembership versus dependency inducing practices. Deviant Behavior, 33(3), 168–184.

Coates, D. D. (2013). A symbolicinteractionist understanding of the selves of former members of New ReligiousMovements. Mental Health, Religion &Culture, 16(10), 1066–1079.

Coates, D. D. (2013).Disaffiliation from a new religious movement: The importance of self and othersin exit. Symbolic Interaction, 36(3),314–334.

Coates, D. D. (2014). New religiousmovement membership and the importance of stable ‘others’ for the making ofselves. Journal of Religion and Health,53(5), 1300–1316.

Committee on Bioethics, AmericanAcademy of Pediatrics. (1988). Religious exemptions from child abuse statutes. Pediatrics, 81(1) (January), 169–171.

Cooper, S. (2018). How counseling can help faith and families. In S. Harvey, S. Steidinger, & J. A. Beckford (Eds.),New religious movements and counseling. London: Routledge.

Courtois, C., & Ford, J. D.(Ed.). (2009). Treating complex trauma:An evidence based guide. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Cox, H. (1977). Turning East: The promise and peril of thenew orientalism. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.

Craig, N., & Weathers, R.(1990). The false transformational promise of Bible-based cults: Archetypaldynamics. Cultic Studies Journal, 7(2), 160–173.

Crawley, K., Paulina, D., &White, R. (1990). Reintegration of exiting cult members with their families: Abrief intervention model. Cultic Studies Journal, 7(1), 26–40.

Cushman, P. (1989). Ironfists/velvet gloves: A study of a mass marathon psychology training. Psychotherapy 26(1), 23–39.

Cushman, P. (1986). The selfbesieged: Recruitment-indoctrination processes in restrictive groups. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior,16(1), 1–32.

Dahlen, P. (1997). Working withwomen survivors of cults: An empowerment model for counselors. Cultic Studies Journal, 14(1), 145–154.

Dann, M. (1983). Spiritualreconnection: An approach to counseling cultists. In R. E. Schecter (Ed.), Counseling cultists and their families(pp. 48–49). Weston, MA: American Family Foundation.

Dell, P. F., & O’Neil, J. A.(2009). Dissociation and the dissociativedisorders: DSM-V and beyond. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.

Derocher,L. (2015). Intervene with religious sects in youth protection, Intervenir auprès de sectes religieuses enprotection de la jeunesse : Un défi. Quebec, Canada: Presses DeI’Universite du Quebec.

Deutsch,A., & Miller, M. (1983). A clinical study of fourUnification Church members. AmericanJournal of Psychiatry, 140(6), 767–770.

DeYoung, R. (2009). A single-casedesign implementing eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) withan ex-cult member. Cultic Studies Review, 8(2), 139–153.

Di Marzio, R. (2015). Meditating tosettle conflicts in cultic groups: Some useful methodologies. ICSA Today, 6(2), 12–15.

Dole, A. (1995). Clinical casestudies of cult members. Cultic StudiesJournal, 12(2), 121-–147.

Dowhower, R. (2013). The results ofthe International Cultic Studies Association’s 2008 Questionnaire for FormerCult Members. ICSA Today, 4(1),10–11.

Dubrow-Eichel, S. (1989).Deprogramming: A case study. Part I: Personal observations of the group process[Special issue]. Cultic Studies Journal,6(2), 1–117.

Dubrow-Eichel, S. (1990).Deprogramming: A case study. Part II: Conversation analysis. Cultic Studies Journal, 7, 174–216.

Dubrow-Eichel, S. (2001). Sayinggoodbye to the guru: Brief intermittent developmental therapy with a youngadult in a high demand group. Journal ofCollege Student Psychotherapy, 16(1–2), 153–170.

Dubrow-Eichel, S. (2002). Sayinggood-bye to the guru: Brief intermittent developmental therapy with a youngadult in a high demand group. In S. Cooper (Ed.), Casebook of brief psychotherapy with college students (pp. 153–170). Binghamton, NY: Haworth.

Dubrow-Eichel,S., & Dubrow-Eichel, L. (1988). Trouble inparadise: Some observations on psychotherapy with new agers. Cultic Studies Journal, 5(2), 177

Dubrow-Marshall, R. (2010). Theinfluence continuum—The good, the dubious, and the harmful—Evidence andimplications for policy and practice in the 21st century. International Journal of Cultic Studies, 1, 1–13.

Dubrow-Marshall, R. (2011). Paul R.Martin memorial lecture. ICSA Today, 2(2),14–17.

Dubrow-Marshall, R., &Dubrow-Marshall, L. (2016). Cults and mental health. In Howard S. Friedman(Ed.), Encyclopedia of mental health(second edition). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, Academic Press.

Dubrow-Marshall, R., & Dubrow-Marshall, L. (2016, February 2). “How to talk someone out of a damaging cult,” The Conversation.

Dubrow-Marshall,L., & Dubrow-Marshall, R. (2017). The role of self-care in cult recovery:Issues for practitioners, members, and former members of cultic groups andtheir families. In L. Goldberg, W. Goldberg, R. Henry,& M. D. Langone, (Eds.), Cult recovery: A clinician’s guideto working with former members and their families (Chapter 10, pp. 215-240). Bonita Springs, FL: ICSA.

Dubrow-Marshall, L., & Dubrow-Marshall, R. (2017, April 4). “Domestic abuse: even the judges are getting it wrong,” The Conversation. 

Dubrow-Marshall, L., & Dubrow-Marshall, R. (2018). The psychological development and consequences of involvement with new religious movements: Counseling issues for members, former members, and families. In S. Harvey, S. Steidinger, & J. A. Beckford (Eds.), New religious movements and counseling. London: Routledge.

Duncan, W. J. (2006). I can’t hear God anymore: Lifein a Dallas cult. Garland, TX: VMLife Resources.

Durocher, N. (1999). Insights fromcult survivors regarding group support. BritishJournal of Social Work, 29(4),581–599.

Eichel, S. K. D. (2001). Sayinggoodbye to the guru: Brief intermittent developmental therapy with a youngadult in a high demand group. Journal ofCollege Student Psychotherapy, 16(1–2), 153–170.

Eichel, S. K. D. (2016). Counselingformer cultists: The brief intermittent development therapy (BIDT) approach. International Journal of Cultic Studies, 7,1–14.

Eichel, S. K. D. (2016). Cults,extremist movements, and the child custody evaluation: Pitfalls and strategies.In Goldstein, Mark L. (Ed.), Handbook ofchild custody (pp. 273–289). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

Eichel, S. K. D. (2016). The theorythat won’t go away: An updated review of the role hypnosis plays in mindcontrol. ICSA Today 7(1), 23–27.

Eichel,S. K. D. (2017). Counseling former cultists: The brief intermittentdevelopmental therapy (BIDT) approach. (2017). In L.Goldberg, W. Goldberg, R. Henry, & M. D. Langone, (Eds.), Cult recovery: A clinician’s guide to working with former members andtheir families (Chapter5, pp. 95-116). Bonita Springs, FL: ICSA.

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Enroth, R. M. (1993). Churches that abuse. Grand Rapids, MI:Zondervan. Available online at http://www.apologeticsindex.org/716-churches-that-abuse-online-book

Enroth, R. M. (1994). Recovering from churches that abuse.Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Available online at http://www.apologeticsindex.org/958-recovering-from-churches-that-abuse-online-book

Enroth, R. M., Ericson, E. E., &Peters, C. B. (1972). Jesus people: Old-timereligion in the age of Aquarius. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans.

Fernández Aguado, J. (2015).Psychological manipulation, hypnosis, and suggestion. International Journal of Cultic Studies, 6, 48–59.

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Fine, Y., & Corlin, Z. (1983).Toward family reunification: Counseling the cult recruit. In R. Schecter (Ed.),Counseling cultists and their families(pp. 12–17). Weston, MA: American Family Foundation.

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Ford, W. (1993). Recovery from abusive groups. BonitaSprings, FL: American Family Foundation.

Foster, J., Loomis, R., Szimhart,J., & Wilcox, L. (2003). The evolution of a cult and a support group forthe families of its members: The Jim Roberts group and the Roberts GroupParents Network. Cultic Studies Review, 2(2),151–168.

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Furnari, L. (2005, September). Bornor raised in closed, high-demand groups: Developmental considerations. ICSAE-Newsletter, 4(3).

Furnari,L. (2017). EMDR—Overview and application with first- and second-generationformer group members. In L. Goldberg, W. Goldberg, R.Henry, & M. D. Langone, (Eds.), Cult recovery: A clinician’s guideto working with former members and their families (Chapter 7, pp. 141-170). Bonita Springs, FL: ICSA.

Furnari, L., & Henry, R.(2012). Lessons learned from SGAs about recovery and resiliency. ICSA Today, 2(3), 3–9.

Gaines, M. J., Wilson, M. A.,Redican, K. J., & Baffi, C. R. (1984). The effects of cult membership onthe health status of adults and children. HealthValues: Achieving High Level Wellness. 8(2) (March/April), 13–17.

Galanter, M. (Ed.). (1989). Cults and new religious movements.Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Galanter, M. (1999). Cults; faith, healing and coercion (secondedition). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Galanter, M. (2013). Charismaticgroups and cults: A psychological and social analysis. In Kenneth I. Pargament,Julie J. Exline, & James W. Jones (Eds.), APA handbook of psychology, religion, and spirituality (Vol. 1):Context, theory, and research. APA handbooks in psychology (pp. 729–740).Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

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Garvey, K. (1993). The importanceof information in preparing for exist counseling: A case study. In M. Langone(Ed.), Recovery from cults: Help for victims of psychological and spiritualabuse (pp. 181–202). New York, NY: Norton.

Giambalvo, C. (1992). Exit counseling:How to respond to cult-affected loved ones. Bonita Springs, FL: AmericanFamily Foundation. (Re-issued as Family interventionsfor cult-affected loved ones, available online at https://drive.google.com/file/d/
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Giambalvo, C. (1993). Post-cultproblems: An exit counselor’s perspective. In M. Langone (Ed.), Recoveryfrom cults: Help for victims of psychological and spiritual abuse (pp. 148–154).New York, NY: Norton.

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Goldberg, L. (2013). Marriage afterthe cult. ICSA Today, 4(2), 2–5.

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Hassan, S. (2000). Releasing thebonds: Empowering people to think for themselves. Danbury, CT: AitanPublishing Company.

Hassan, S. (2004). The strategicinteraction approach. ICSA e-Newsletter,3(2).

Hassan, S. (2012). Freedom of mind: Helping loved ones leave controllingpeople, cults, and beliefs. Newton, MA: Freedom of Mind Press.

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Jenkinson,G. (2017). Relational psychoeducational intensive—Time away for postcultcounselling. In L. Goldberg, W. Goldberg, R. Henry,& M. D. Langone, (Eds.), Cult recovery: A clinician’s guideto working with former members and their families (Chapter 16, pp. 339-366). Bonita Springs, FL: ICSA.

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Kristine Langone, BSW, California StateUniversity, Fresno, is a Christian former cult member, which led to herinterest in helping former cult members. In college she studied differentclinical frameworks for helping former members. She has a Bachelor’s in SocialWork from Fresno, California State University. Currently she resides inColorado with her husband and two children.

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